快三吉林

改革开放40年,出版业的沧桑巨变

时间: 2017-11-29 作者: 路遥、余若歆、周贺 来源:快三吉林_快三下载---首页_Welcome

1978-2018nian,40niandanzhiyihuijian,baokuochubanyezaineidexuduoxingye,congxiaodaoda,youruodaoqiang,neixiepengpaidelishishunjian,chengweijidairengongtongdehuiyi,yejianzhengzhexingyedebianhuachengzhang。neixienian,jianyigewaishengzuozhe,yaozuoshijigexiaoshidelvpihuoche;neixienian,diannaohaiweipuji,meiyicixiaoyangdouxuyaobianjichaoxiehuoyulu;neixienian,yinshuajishuhaibijiaoluohou,youxiegongyizhiyoushanghai、shenzhendeyinshuachangnengshixian。40nian,renleilishizhanghedeyishun,queshizhongguofashenglefantianfudidebianhua,chubanyeyebeishidaidachaoguoxieqizhong,jijingmosuo,jiwangkailai,xiangzhechubanqiangguodemubiaomaijin。

“1978nian5yue,guojiachubanjuzuzhi13geshengshichubanbumenjibufenzhongyangjichubanshezhongyinde35zhongzhongwaiwenxuezuopinxiangjifaxing。zheipishuzongyinliangda1500wance,jizhongtoufangshichanghou,chengqianshangwanmingduzhezaishudianfengyongqianggou。beijingwangfujingshudian、xisimenshibu,shanghainanjingdonglumenshibu、huaihailumenshibudengzhongxinmenshi,cong4yue30riwanqijiuyouduzhepaiduidenghou,renshuzuiduodeshihouchaoguo1wanren。”

zheishiyizeguzhiduilifanchudebaodao,miaoshule40nianqianlijing“shuhuang”houdeduzhemendeyuedureqing。zaizheizhongyuedureqingheyueduxuqiudetuidongxia,40nianjian,kuaisanjilinguochubanyehuodelekuaisuqiezhangzudefazhan。1978nian,quanguozhiyou105jiachubanshe,chubantushujin14987zhong,zongyinshu37yice,guoyoutushufaxingwangdian8600duoge。dao2017nian,quanguoyiyou580duojiachubanshe,chubantushujin50wanzhong,zongyinshu92.4yice,chubanwuxiaoshouzonge3704yiyuan,lingshouzonge1580yiyuan,shitishudianfaxingwangdian22.5wange。zheixieshujubiaoming,kuaisanjilinguoyichengweimingfuqishidechubanfaxingdaguo。

快三吉林congxiaodaoda,congruodaoqiang,chubanyedefazhanjuankezaimeigechubanrendejiyizhizhong,yebijiangyanshenjinchubanrendemingtianheweilai。huishougaigekaifang40nian,yigegeguanjiancichuanqilechubanyedefazhanyujubian,zaizheixieguanjiancili,kuaisanjilinhuoxunenggoudedaojiandingcongrong、dabuxiangqiandediqiyudongli。

改革开放

1978nianshiyijiesanzhongquanhuizhaokaihou,daliangzhongwaimingzhuzhongyin、yingmeishushangdaibiaotuanfanghualakailechubanyedefazhanxinxumu。

difangchubanshehuodefazhanjiyu,shuliangzengzhangxianzhu。1979nianquanguochubangongzuohuiyitichuyaogaibiandifangchubanshe“sanhua”(difanghua、tongsuhua、qunzhonghua)dechubanfangzhen、yunxudifangshe“lizubensheng,mianxiangquanguo”,jidadijifaledifangshedechubanshengchanli,youcicuishengleyipipojuyingxianglidedifangshe。

快三吉林jidaquanguoxingshuzhanchubuxingcheng。1980nian10yue,xinhuashudianzongdianhebeijingshixinhuashudianzaijingjubanlediyijiequanguoshushi,zheishidiyiciquanguoguimodeshushi,houfazhanchengquanguotushujiaoyibolanhui,meinianzaibutongchengshijuban。1986nian9yue,beijingguojitushubolanhuizaijingjuxing,zheishiquanguoshouciguojixingtushubolanhui,zhijinyijuban25jie。

tushufaxingtixibiangerijianshenhua。1981nian,quanguoxinhuashudiankaishijinxingkaijiashoushu。tongniandi,quanguo2000duojiashudianzhongyou600duojiashixingkaijiashoushu。1982nian7yue,wenhuabufabu《guanyutushufaxingtizhigaigegongzuodetongzhi》,zhongtijixiaowenti;1986nian7yue,guojiachubanjufabu《guanyutuixingtushuduozhonggouxiaoxingshideshixingfangan》;1988nian4yue,zaizhongxuanbu、xinwenchubanshu《guanyudangqiantushufaxingtizhigaigederuoganyijian》zhongtidao: chudangheguojiadezhongyaowenxian、kebenjiaocaiheneibufaxingtushujixushixingbaoxiaowai,qitatushukeshixingjingxiao、jixiaodengduozhongxingshi,jixiaoshituiguangfangxiang,yingjijishixing。zhici,tushujixiaozaiquanguopukai。

chubanjigouqiyehuaguanlichuxianduanni。1983nian,wenhuabuchutaiwenjiancheng,chubansheshuyushiyedanwei,rengshixingqiyeguanli。chubanshekaishiyoudanchundeshengchanxingzhubuzhuanbianweishengchanjingyingxing,bingkaishi“xiangshichangxunqiushengcun”。2003nian,quanguowenhuatizhigaigeshidiangongzuohuiyizhaokai,chubanshedezhuanqigaizhibeitishangricheng,guoyouwenhuadanweishichangzhutiqueshi、jingzhenglibuqiangdezhuangkuangchubugaibian。

体制改革

conggaigekaifangchuqideboluanfanzheng、huifushengchan,dao1980nianguojiachubanshiyeguanlijupizhunxinjianhuohuifushoupichubanshe,danggaigedeqianzoubeizouxiang,zhenggexingyekaishilejishiniandejidangqifu: congfaxingdaochuban,guoyouminying“yijiaqin”。1982nian,wenhuabufabu《guanyutushufaxingtizhigaigegongzuodetongzhi》,tichuzujianyiguoyouxinhuashudianweizhuti,duozhongjingjichengfen,duotiaoliutongqudao,duozhonggouxiaoxingshi,shaoliuzhuanhuanjiedetushufaxingtizhi(jiancheng“yizhusanduoyishao”)。congci,chuantongxinhuashudianzuoweidanyifaxingqudaodejumianbeidapo,minyingfaxingqiyedengshangwutai。erhou,wenhuabutichu“chubansheyoudanchundeshengchanxingdanweizhubuzhuanbianweishengchanjingyingxingdanwei”,lakailechubansheshichanghuatizhigaigededamu。jiezhi2017nian,difangshejibenwanchenggongsizhigaizao,shichanghuolizengqiang。ergaigefaduandefaxingtixi,yexingchengleguoyouxinhuaweizhu,minyingshudian、tushudianshang、shequnqudaobingcundeduoyuanfaxinggeju。

快三吉林congzhongyangdaodifang,“fenfenhehe”zhongtigaoshichangjizhongdu。jiezhi2016nian,quanguogongyouchubanshe584jia(hanfupaishe),zhongyangjichubanshe219jia,difangchubanshe365jia,zaiquanguofanweineixingchengleyizonghechubanjituangongsiweizhutihefensandanyichubanshebingcundejingzhenggeju。

快三吉林congwenhuatizhidaoguanlijizhi,“duolaoduode”jifaneibuhuoli。chubantizhigaigejinglileconghuifuchubandaojianquanchuban,congzhengqifenkai、zhengshifenkaidaozhuanqigaizhi,yijigufenzhigaizaoyushangshi,zhubuzouxiangquanmianshichanghuadeguocheng。shizhijinri,suizheronghefazhanxingqi,chubanzuzhifangshidebiange,yingxiaofaxingtixidedazhendong、“shuangxiao”kaohedetuijinluoshi,butongchubanjigouzaizhinengshezhihekaohefangshidengfangmian,doumaikailexinbufa。

全民阅读

quanminyueduhuodongzi2006niankaizhanzhijin,yizaichubanyenaizhizhenggeshehuiyuranchengfeng。2003niandishijiequanguozhengxieyicihuiyishang,zhengxieweiyuanzhuyongxintiyisheliguojiayuedujie,tuidongquanminyuedu。cihou10nianjian,wushulin、gejianxiong、baiyansongdengduoweizhengxieweiyuanweicibenzouhuyu。

2012nian,shibadadiyiciba“kaizhanquanminyueduhuodong”zuoweituijinshehuizhuyiwenhuaqiangguokuaisanjilindezhongyaojucuo,zuochuzhanlvebushu;2013nian4yue,yuanguojiaxinwenchubanguangdianzongju(jiancheng“yuanzongju”)chengliquanminyuedulifagongzuozu,qicao《quanminyuedutiaoli》;2014-2018nian,quanminyuedulianxu5cibeixieruzhengfugongzuobaogao,tifayou“changdao”bianwei“dalituidong”;cihougeshengde《quanminyueducujintiaoli》xiangjibanbu。

快三吉林zaizheiyangdechangdaoxia,quanguogedikaishijijituidongquanminyuedu,jubuwanquantongji,400duogechengshichangshedushujie、dushuyuedenghuodong,meinianxiyin8yiduoduzhecanyu。geshengduiyuquanminyuedudexuanchuanyeduoguanqixia,chongfenliyong“liangweiyiduan”dengxinmeitifangshijinxingxuanchuantuiguang。jinliangnianlai,《langduzhe》dengyueduleidianshijiemushoudaorepeng,duituijinquanminyueduqidaolejijizuoyong;tongshi,gezhongminjianyuedutuiguangjigoudexingqishidequanminyuedugengjiashenrurenxin。

快三吉林zhongguoxinwenchubanyanjiuyuanzi2002niankaishijinxing“quanguoguominyuedudiaocha”。2002niandiyiciquanguoguominyuedudiaochashi,kuaisanjilinguochengnianjuminzongheyuedulvjiejin60%,chengnianrenzhongdagaiyou6yirenyouyueduxingwei,7.5%shoufangzheyouwangluoyueduxiguan。2017nian,yuedulvwei80.3%,tongbizengzhang0.4%;chengnianguominrenjunzhizhitushuyueduliang4.66ben,jiaoshangniande4.65benlveyouzengzhang;shuzihuayuedufangshidejiechulvwei73.0%。

行业组织

今年4月,随着《深化党和国家机构改革方案》落地实施,国家新闻出版署(国家版权所有:快三吉林_快三下载---首页_Welcome

改革开放以来,快三吉林国新闻出版行政管理机构经过数次调整,如1982年的文化部出版事业管理局,1985年的国家版权所有:快三吉林_快三下载---首页_Welcome

zaizhengqifenkai、guanbanfenlideyuanzexia,difangxinwenchubanjuyuchubanshe、chubanjituanhuochubanzongshezhubufenkai,xingzhengjigouzhinengyeyou“banchuban”xiang“guanchuban”zhuanbian,baokuozhidingguize、hongguandiaokong、zhengcediaojieheshichangjianguandeng。erzaimuqiandeguanlijizhixia,zuidaxianduquxiaohexiafangxinwenchubanxingzhengshenpishixiang,quxiaozhongyangzhidingdifangshishidexinwenchubanxingzhengshenpishixiang13xiang,quxiaoquanbuzhongjiekuaisanjilinshixiang,jinerzhubuwanshanguanrenguanshiguanzichanguandaoxiangxiangtongyideguoyouwenhuazichanjianguanjizhi。

快三吉林zaichubanzhuanxingshengjiheshichanghuajinchengzhong,guanlijigouzaizuidahua“fangquan”,erchubanshehuochubanjituanzishenzexuanze“baotuan”yingduijingzheng。congshangshiji80niandaimozhijin,30duonianshijian,meishuchubanshe、renminchubanshe、jingjileichubanshedengtongleixingchubanshezuchengdechubanlianheti,“huadongliushao”dengquyuxinglianmeng,yijijingbanshiwushefandaobanlianmeng、shaoerchubanfandaobanlianmengdengdechengli,conglingyigecengmianzhangxianzhekuaisanjilinguoxinwenchubanyedefenzhonghuashuxing,yijishichanghuajingzhengzhijilie。

新华书店

zuoweichubanfaxinggongzuozhongdezhuqudaohezhuzhendi,gaigekaifang40nianlai,xinhuashudianshizhongchengdanzhezhongyaodeshehuizeren。cong1977nianhuifugaokaodao1978niandemingzhujiejin,zaidaodangxia,xinhuashudianshizhongzuoweihuoquzhishidezhongyaochuangkou,kuaisanjilinzheduzhe。

快三吉林bansuishehuifazhan,xinhuashudianbuduanyushijujin。1978niankaijiashoushu、1981niandaguimokuaisanjilinnongcuntushufaxingwangdian、1982niankuaisanjilinzhuanyeshudian……xinhuashudianmeiniandouyouxinbianhua;1980nianqi,jubanquanguoshushi、luxutuichujixiaodengxinchuanggouxiaoxingshi、faxingyinxiangzhipin……xinhuashudianmeiniandouyouxinzuofa;1990nianhou,zhuanqijingying、zujianfaxingjituan、dashuchengbuduankaiye……xinhuashudianmeiniandouyouxindongxiang;jinru2000nian,liansuojingying、zujianxiehui、gugaishangshi……xinhuashudianmeiniandouyouxinchuangju;2010nianzhihou,zhuanxingshengji、kaibanwangdian、zhihuishucheng、wurenxinlingshou……xinhuashudianmeiniandouyouxinwanfa。

xinhuashudianyemianlinzhexinderenwuyutiaozhan。diyi,shizhongguanche“keqiandaoshu、renshouyice”zhongyaozhengzhirenwudejuexin;dier,mianlinshichangjingjidachao,yinchengqukuojian、gaizaoerbeipobanqianhuochexiaodedanyou;disan,yutushudianshang、minyingshudianbuduanjingzheng,tongguoduoyuanhuajingying、neibushengjigaizaodengshouduanxiyinduzhejindiandejianxin;disi,yingjiexinlingshoushidai,liyongbianshenwurenshudian、dajianzhinengshujudengronghefazhanxinshouduan,tongshirengranjianfuyuedutuiguangdengshehuizerendejianshou。rujin,zaishitishudianbeishouzhongshidedangxia,xinhuashudianzheigezouguo81niande“jinzizhaopai”,bijiangyinglaixindefazhanheweilai。

渠道变革

zaihenzhangyiduanshijian,xinhuashudianshizhongfahuizhezhuqudao、zhuzhendidezuoyong。zuowei“erqudao”deminyingshuqi,jiegaigekaifangdechunfengdeyixunsufazhan,jishentushufaxingye。suizhewaizililiangjinru、tushudianshangjueqi、zimeitiqudaohuobao,qudaobiangebuduan。

快三吉林1982nian,tushufaxingshichangxingchengle“yizhusanduoyishao”defaxingxingeju;1988nian,“sanfangyilian”(fangquanchengbao,gaohuoguoyoushudian;fangkaipifaqudao,gaohuotushushichang;fangkaigouxiaoxingshihepifazhekou,gaohuogouxiaojizhi;tuijinhengxiangjingjilianhe,fazhangezhongchubanfaxingqiyequntiheqiyejituan)degejuxingcheng;1996nian,“sanjianyizhuan”(jianlidaxingpifashichanghepixiaozhongxin,jianlixinxinggouxiaoguanxi,jianlihewanshanshichangguize,zhuanbianchubanshezibanfaxingdeguannianhejizhidegaigerenwu),cushiqudaojinru“tongyikaifang、jingzhengyouxu”defazhanjieduan;suihou,guanpeiqudaobuduanfazhan,tushuguanxiancaitushuhuiciqibifu;1999niandangdangchuangli,kaiqilewangshangshoushumoshi,chengweichuantongchubanfaxingde“dianfuzhe”,2007nianqitachaoguoxinhuashudianchengweiguoneizuidadetushulingshoushang。

21shijihouzhongguojiaruwto,chengnuokaifangchubanwufenxiaoshichang,daliangwaizikaishijinrutushufaxingshichang,xinhuashudian、minyingshuyedegezhonglianmeng、zhongpan、kuashengzhanlvezhongzugongzuobuduanjinxing,minyingshuyeyehuodelechubanwudezongfaquan;hulianwangshidailailin,tushudianshangjueqi,“jiagezhan”cengyidushideshitishudianxianrukunjing,kaijuanjianceshujuxianshi,2017nianwangshangshudianduishichangzengzhangdegongxianlvgaoda92.32%;ciwai,2016nianqi,pingjieweixindengshejiaoruanjian,shequndianshangbuduanfazhan,xunsuchengweixinqudao,guafenzhetushufaxingshichangdefene。

民营书业

快三吉林40nianlai,minyingshuyecongwudaoyou,rujinyijingchengqilezhongguoshuyefazhande“banbiantian”——zaizhengtitushufaxingyezhong,minyingshuyezichanzongezhan65%,xiaoshoushouru、lirunzongejunzhan67%。huisuminyingshuyedefazhanlicheng,jinglishangshiji70niandaizhongqide“shuhuang”hou,weijiejue“maishunan”he“maishunan”dezhongdaketi,dangheguojiakaishijuedingdiaodongminjianzibenjinruchubanye,youguanminyingtushuchubanfaxingdezhengcekaishiyunniang。

1980nian,guojiachubanjufachu《〈kuaisanjilinyoujihuayoubuzhoudifazhanjitisuoyouzhihegetisuoyouzhideshudian、shuting、shutanheshufan〉detongzhi》,chengweigaigekaifanghoukuaisanjilinguofazhanminyingshuyedediyifenzhongyaowenjian。1982nian6yue,wenhuabuzhaokaiquanguotushufaxingtizhigaigezuotanhui,mingquetichu“jijifuchigetijingyingdeshudianyushutan”。zheiyinian,minyingshudiandaliangchuxian,zuowei“buchong”liliang,yongyijiejuexinhuashudianfaxingwangdianjiaoshao、wufamanzushichangxuqiudenanti。

shangshiji90niandai,yipishekexueshushudianzaigedixingqi,birubeijingfengrusong、guizhouxixifudengshudian,yibiaobangpinweiweixian,hendachengdushanggaishanleshehuiduiyuminyingshudianderenshi,weiminyingshuyehuodegongxinliheyingxianglitianzhuanjiawa。

cihou,minyingshudianzhujiancongbuguifanjingyingmairuguifanyouxufazhan,congguoqudexiaoshutan、xiaobaotingdedanyijingyingmoshi,xiangxiandaihua、gongsihua、pinpaihuabuduantuibian。1996nian6yue,xishushuwukaiye,biaozhizhezhongguodiyijiaminyingquanguoxingliansuoshudiandansheng,yebiaozhizhezhongguoshuyelingshouxingyeliansuojingyingdekaishi。fazhanzhijin,minyingshudiandeliansuojingyingyichengchangtai。

bujuxianyutushufaxingyewu,minyingshudian、shutan、shufanyoujiangmuguangmiaozhunlechubanshangyoudetushucehuayubianjihuanjie。shangshiji80niandai,minyingshushangdanqiangpimadicehuatushufengxingyishi。90niandaimo,tushugongzuoshihewenhuagongsimingyixiadetushugongsiyingyunersheng。2009nian,guojiaxinwenchubanzongshufabu《guanyujinyibutuijinxinwenchubantizhigaigedezhidaoyijian》,chengren“feigongyouchubangongzuoshi”shichubanhuanjiedehefaliliang。2017nian3yue,xinjingdianwenhuachenggongnadaoipopiwen,chengweizhongguoshoujiashangshideminyingshuqi。fazhanzhijin,minyingshuyezaichangxiaoshulingyuzhangwolechongzudehuayuquan,zhujianzouxianglechubanhexinlingyu。

资本运作

ruguoshuo,chubanshejituanhua、gufenzhigaizaodeguochengshichubanyeshichanghuabuduanshenrudejieguo,neime,chubanqiyerongzishangshizetixianzhechubanxingyezhenzheng“rushi”hechixuzuodazuoqiangdejuexin,chengweichubanyeshichanghuayunzuodeshijinshi。

2005niandi,zhonggongzhongyang、guowuyuanfabu《guanyushenhuawenhuatizhigaigederuoganyijian》,zhijiecujinleguoyouwenhuaqiyejiakuaishangshidebufa。2006nian,shanghaixinhuachuanmeigufenyouxiangongsichengli,shanghaixinhuafaxingjituantongguohualianchaoshichenggong“jieqiaoshangshi”,wanchenglezhongguochubanfaxingxingyeshangshi“pobing”。cihou,sichuanxinhuawenxuanliansuogufenyouxiangongsi、beifanglianhechubanchuanmeigufenyouxiangongsidengfenfenjinjunzibenshichang,erzhidao2008nianshidaichubanchuanmeigufenyouxiangongsidengluagushichang,kuaisanjilinguoxinwenchubanzhuyecaiyinglailezhenzhengyiyishangzhengtishangshide“diyigu”。

cihou,chubanshangshirechaobujian,kuajieshougouanlibuduan,kuaguokuadiyujingyingchengchangtai……zaichubanyichengxiyangchanyedelundiaoxia,zibenreqianbuduanyongru。jiezhi2017nian,xinwenchubanye21jiashangshigongsizongzichanguimowei1752.92yiyuan,zongzichanchaoguobaiyidegongyou9jia。suizhezhongguokechuan、xinjingdianwenhua、yuewenjituan、zhangyuekejidengdengluzibenshichang,zhongguochubanjingzhenggejujinyibuqueli。weilai,zai“yidaiyilu”“zouchuqu”dengzhengcezhutuixia,wanxinghaiwaibujuhuojiangchengweixinwenchubanyezibenyunzuodezhongyaofangxiang。

走出去

改革开放40年来,中国出版业的对外快三吉林与国际合作经历了3个阶段——1978-1992年,“人员走出去、经验请进来”;1992-2001年,“大规模引进版权所有:快三吉林_快三下载---首页_Welcome

改革开放初期,虚怀若谷地利用一切机会向国外出版同仁学习,成为快三吉林国出版业对外快三吉林与国际合作的主流。随着市场经济的进一步发展,版权所有:快三吉林_快三下载---首页_Welcome

2001年快三吉林国加入世界贸易组织(WTO);2002年党的十六大报告指出,实施“走出去”战略是对外开放新阶段的重大举措。在快三吉林国政治、经济影响力不断增强的背景下,出版业也逐渐迈出了走向世界的步伐。16年间,出版“走出去”工作取得了辉煌成就: 一系列重点工程项目陆续实施,版权所有:快三吉林_快三下载---首页_Welcome

十九大以来,出版业将“推进国际传播能力快三吉林”、快三吉林国家“一带一路”倡议等作为新时期“走出去”工作的重点之一,进一步推进版权所有:快三吉林_快三下载---首页_Welcome

 融合发展

快三吉林gaigekaifang40nianlai,chubanwucongheibaizouxiangcaise、congpingmianfazhanweiliti、congdanyidewenzishengjiweiyinpin、shipin、ar/vrdengrongmeitiyueduxingshi。chubanyederonghefazhanjishijishuyuwenhuadejiaofeng,gengshichuantong“bian、yin、fa”liuchengyudangxiayuedukuaisanjilinshengjideshendujiaorong。

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对于出版业来说,维护知识产权、打击盗版的工作,始终“在路上”。在维护知识产权方面: 1980年6月,中国正式成为世界知识产权组织成员国;1982年5月,联合国世界知识产权组织总干事鲍格胥等7名官员和专家来华,在北京举办版权所有:快三吉林_快三下载---首页_Welcome

2017年,十九大报告明确指出,倡导创新文化,强化知识产权创造、保护、运用,为国内版权所有:快三吉林_快三下载---首页_Welcome

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